Current technical civilization is based on quantum physics: microelectronics, lasers, nuclear energy and many other technologies. In recent decades, the direct application of quantum principles has also gained ground, often contradicting the common understanding of the phenomena around us, but with important applications in, for example, information processing and transmission. Collectively, quantum technologies are referred to as. They offer new possibilities and the range of applications is expanding, particularly in the field of precision metrology and sensors. Although their commercial use is still at an early stage, their potential appears to be great.
Thanks to quantum technologies, the relative accuracy of timekeeping is already about a trillion times higher than that of a conventional quartz oscillator watch. Precise time is important not only for navigation systems such as GPS or Galileo, but also, for example, for automated trading on stock exchanges. They can also find important applications in security technologies. Quantum cryptography, for example, enables secure communication regardless of the computational or technological capabilities of the attacker. While quantum computers will compromise current cryptographic systems, they will also make it possible, for example, to calculate the properties of large molecules, which is not possible even with current supercomputers. Quantum accelerometers and gyroscopes can increase the accuracy of inertial navigation systems by two to three orders of magnitude. New sensors will make it possible to measure the magnetic field of individual molecules.
The development of quantum technologies goes hand in hand with the fundamental development of supporting technologies, such as single photon sources and entangled light states, single-photon detectors, single-chip ion traps and optical integrated circuits, which enable their application and use. But the development of quantum technologies is also deepening our understanding of quantum physics.
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